Attributes of Academic Language
Students often think that academic language should sound complex and start to become difficult to write and understand but that’s not necessarily the way it is. Instead, academic writing should be clear and concise so that you can communicate its contents into the easiest way.
This site serves as a summary regarding the features of academic language together with corresponding language skills that are necessary to understand and make use of academic language. These guidelines are meant to assist you to have a clearer understanding of the demands of academic writing and develop skills to boost your writing that is academic in.
For an instant introduction to academic writing, watch this 3 minute video from Lund University:
Formal writing requires considerable effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments that produce the writing simple to comprehend. Generally speaking this means conversational English should be avoided and facts and figures must certanly be presented in a manner that is clear. Academic texts should always be factual, concise and accurate. Choose words precisely and carefully so that the reader can accurately understand the concepts in the text.
It is important to remember that academic texts are written with an audience that is academic mind along with your writing style has to adapt to the conventions for the field you might be studying.
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In order to achieve the appropriate amount of formality, you really need to read literature inside your field. This will also allow you to learn and use subject-specific terms. Correct use of terminology and language facilitates your communication and heightens the credibility of one’s work.
The Academic Phrasebank from the University of Manchester is a rich resource of phrases that can be utilized in academic writing.
In English, contractions are employed in informal settings consequently they are therefore not right for academic texts. In the place of using a contraction you really need to write the words out inside their entirety. Listed below are a few examples:
Don’t – do not
Wasn’t – was not
Can’t – cannot (realize that it is printed in one word)
It’s – it really is (Observe the difference between “it’s” (contraction of “it is”) and the possessive “its” (as in “The dog wagged its tail”)
Acronyms and Abbreviations:
It is essential to use hop over to this website acronyms and abbreviations properly in academic writing which means your text is as clear as you possibly can for your reader. You really need to only use abbreviations when the reading is made by it of your text easier. Another rule of thumb is that the abbreviated term should appear at the least 3 times in the paper. If you use a term more rarely it might be far better to spell it out. Words which are commonly abbreviated such as for instance “professor” (prof.) and “department” (dept.) should be spelled out in academic texts. Note however that some abbreviations can be used in citations and reference lists.
An acronym is a kind of abbreviation that is formed because of the first letter of each and every word in a phrase or organization. UN and WHO are a couple of types of well-known acronyms. Once you introduce the acronym, you need to write out of the whole name or phrase followed by the acronym in parentheses. After you have introduced it, you may utilize the acronym in the rest of one’s text. As an example:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern over the spread for the virus. The WHO has therefore….
Latin abbreviations should not be found in the writing itself but works extremely well in parentheses or perhaps in notes and illustrations.
In academic writing, the complexity of this subject matter is acknowledged through critical analysis. This is often done through asking questions and examining and evaluating evidence. Through critical analysis we’re able to add a new perspective to a subject rather than rewriting what has already been written.
Treating your topic as well as your material in an manner that is analytical seep through in your language. Section of being analytical in your writing is to compare and contrast, evaluate and consider both relative sides of a problem. It means that you explain, give reasons, draw conclusions, make suggestions and recommendations and support this with evidence.
Academic writing will be based upon research and not in the writer’s opinion that is own a given topic. You are concerned about facts and not influenced by personal feelings or biases when you write objectively. When presenting a disagreement to the reader, try to show both sides if you can and prevent value that is making.
During the same time you will probably want to do an analysis or a discussion as well as in that manner express an attitude. In order to convey attitude without the need for for example “I think”, you may use words such as apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely and unexpectedly. Observe that the attitude you will be expressing shouldn’t be predicated on personal preferences but rather regarding the evidence that you will be presenting.
For further information and examples of subjective and objective language, see this handout from the University of Adelaide.
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In general, academic texts are impersonal in nature. Which means that the main emphasis should be on evidence and arguments rather than according to personal opinion and feelings. The employment of personal pronouns such as “I”, “we” and “you” must be avoided whenever possible.
Some forms of academic writing encourage the use of personal pronouns. For example, in reflective writing the usage of the pronoun that is personal accepted.
You should be aware that making use of personal pronouns may be different between academic fields and therefore some disciplines usually do not accept it after all. Make sure to check what exactly is recommended, either by asking your instructor or by reading other academic texts within your subject.
Active and passive voice
One way of preventing the usage of personal pronouns is by using the voice that is passive.
I used a variety of techniques to analyze my material. (Here the “I” is the subject performing the action).
A number of techniques were utilized to investigate the materials. (This sentence is impersonal therefore the action is conducted upon the niche, “A selection of techniques”, by an agent that is unnamed. The choice of “the” instead of “my” also serves to help make the sentence more objective).
Utilization of the voice that is passive be somewhat heavy and quite often imprecise. Nowadays, many writers avoid an excessive use of the passive voice. An easy method of writing objectively and still use the active voice is by using your material, your text or your quest while the agent that is active.